List of Malolos Congress as Certified by President Paterno





1898 - Teaching Staff Medical Faculty - Universidad Literaria de Filipinas (now University of the Philippines)

1898 - Ambos Camarines Representative - Philippine Malolos Congress

1898-1900 - Major - Philippine Revolutionary Army

Co-Founder of Nacionalista Party

1906 - Editor - La Independencia

1908-1909 - 1st District Manila Representative -1st Philippine Legislature - Replaced Dr. Dominador Gomez

1909 - 1911 - 2nd District Manila Representative - 2nd Philippine Legislature - Resigned on 1-26-1911 and was replaced by Dominador Gomez

1917-1920 - Manila - Mayor

1920 - Judge - Board of Appeals


Justo Lukban y Rilles was born on May 28, 1863, the second child of a wealthy couple, Don Agustin Lukban and Dona Andrea Rilles, in Labo, Ambos Camarines, now the province of Camarines Norte. He had three brothers, Cayetano, Miguel, and Vicente, and two sisters, Rafaela and Concha.

After the completion of his elementary education, he enrolled in 1873 at the Colegio de San Juan de Letran for his Bachelor of Arts. Then he took up medicine at the University of Santo Tomas. He held the position of Ayundante Director of the School of Medicine in 1884. In 1888, he was conferred the Licentiate of Medicine, subsequently establishing a clinic in Manila.


He enlisted as a medical officer in the revolution against Spain. After the signing of the Pact of Biak-na-Bato on December 15, 1897, he was one of those selected to join General Emilio Aguinaldo in Hongkong. In August , 1898, when Agoncillo proceeded to the United States to Lobby for support for Philippine Independence, Justo Lukban was appointed Councilor to the Central Directorate of the Hong Kong Military Junta. 

In 1898, he was back in the Philippine to resume the struggle for freedom, this time against the Americans. He was a member of the Malolos Congress when it convened on September 15, 1898, representative with Tomas Arejola for Ambos Camarines; member of the Council of Defense and Aid for which he collected and turned over 200,000 pesos to the revolutionary government. When the Universidad Literaria de Filipinas was organized on October 19, 1898, he was appointed to the College of Medicine faculty.

When the Filipino army in Central Luzon, collapsed, Lukban was a member of the Asociacion de Paz, which negotiated for the peaceful surrender of officers and men.

He carried the rank of Major when hostilities ceased. He was appointed Military Sanitary Health Inspector for Ambos Camarines by the Americans in 1900.

In 1902, with Jose M. de la Vina, Leon. Ma Guerrero, Pascual Ledesma, Pablo Ocampo and Mariano Adriatico, he formed the Partido Democrata, the forerunner of the Nacionalista Party which was also organized that year. In 1906, he was editor of the "La Independencia", the militant newspaper advocating autonomy for the Philippines. 

In 1907, he lost the election for the 1st District of Manila to Dr. Dominador Gomez during the 1st Philippine Legislature.  Dr. Gomez, was found to be an American Citizen and resigned in June 18, 1908. A special election was held in August 11, 1908 for the seat vacated by Dr. Gomez which Justo Lukban won. He held the position for the balance of the term limit from 1908 to 1909. He was re-elected as representative for  the the 1st District during the 2nd Philippine Assembly. Dr. Dominador Gomez filed a protest suggesting the Justo Lukban lack residency in Manila. On February 26, 1911, Justo Lukban resigned the position and Dominador Gomez won the subsequent special election.  He was appointed the third Mayor of Manila in 1917, resigning three years later, only to be appointed to the Board of Appeals by Governor General Leonard Woods.

He was a mason and an orator of the Lodge " Sinukan". He was also a Protestant Methodist.

Among his accomplishments as mayor were the construction of the Rizal Avenue and Jone Bridge. He built numerous schoolhouses, public baths, and toilets. But his chief claim to memory was his lighter crusade against prostituiton.

He tilted with the gardenia district of Sampaloc, branding those in the trade as "lepers of society". He insisted to his friend Teodoro M. Kalaw that such tryst were also doen in public places. He took Kalaw to the Luneta but found the place deserted. A moment later, however, they saw a calesa with two "cooing turtle doves". The Major apprehended the vehicle and out came a woman who nervously greeted the mayor.

"Good evening, Senorito. We were not doing anything". She added

"What? Is it you!?" the mayor exclaimed. The woman was the family washerwoman. Her American sailor "escort" hurriedly escaped.

At the suggestion of Sergio Osmena that all prostitutes may be done away with shipping them to Davao, some 181 women were shipped aboard the Corregidor and Negros to Davao from October 16-25, 1918. This became an issue of infringment of freedom and caused an uproar in the press. After a series of litigations, however, "nothing came out of the lawsuit because by the time it was over, only a handful of women could be located. The had been married off or returned to Manila, themselves".

In his retirement from politics, he stayed with only daughter, Natividad (Mrs. Alejandro Albert), in her home at Zurbaran Street, Santa Cruz, Manila. Found in his pocket when he died at 64 of a heart ailiment on September 2, 1927, was a peseta. He is buried in Manila North Cemetary.

Justo R. Lukban's family tree and descendants can be viewed at




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